1. American Hospital Association. 2010 Long-Range Policy Committee, John W. Bluford III, chair. A Call to Action: Creating a Culture of Health. (2011).
  2. CIGNA Corporation. Creating a culture of health. (2010). at
  3. Johnson & Johnson. Culture of Health. (2015). at
  4. Goetzel, R. Z. & Ozminkowski, R. J. The health and cost benefits of work site health-promotion programs. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29, 303–323 (2008).
  5. Bronfenbrenner, U. The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. (Harvard university press, 2009).
  6. Allen, J. in Health Promotion in the Workplace, 4th Edition (ed. O’Donnell, M.P.) (American Journal of Health Promotion, 2014).
  7. Mattke, S., Schnyer, C. & Van Busum, K. R. A Review of the U.S. Workplace Wellness Market. Rand Health, Sponsored by then U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012).
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Workplace Health – Planning/Workplace Governance – Leadership Support. (2013).
  9. Seaverson, E. L. D., Grossmeier, J., Miller, T. M. & Anderson, D. R. The role of incentive design, incentive value, communications strategy, and worksite culture on health risk assessment participation. Am. J. Health Promot. AJHP 23, 343–352 (2009).
  10. Freundlich, N. Institute for Health and Productivity Studies Blog – Making Workplace Health Promotion (Wellness) Programs ‘Work’. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (2015).
  11. Birken, B. E. & Linnan, L. A. Implementation challenges in worksite health promotion programs. N. C. Med. J. 67, 438–441 (2006).
  12. CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield. Workplace Wellness: Creating Mission & Strategic Plan. at
  13. Grzywacz, J. G., Casey, P. R. & Jones, F. A. The Effects of Workplace Flexibility on Health Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis: J. Occup. Environ. Med. 49, 1302–1309 (2007).
  14. Volpp, K. G., Asch, D. A., Galvin, R. & Loewenstein, G. Redesigning Employee Health Incentives — Lessons from Behavioral Economics. N. Engl. J. Med. 365, 388–390 (2011).
  15. Mitchell, M. S. et al. Financial incentives for exercise adherence in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am. J. Prev. Med. 45, 658–667 (2013).
  16. Charness, G. B. & Gneezy, U. Incentives to Exercise. Dep. Econ. UCSB (2008). at
  17. Finkelstein, E. A., Brown, D. S., Brown, D. R. & Buchner, D. M. A randomized study of financial incentives to increase physical activity among sedentary older adults. Prev. Med. 47, 182–187 (2008).
  18. Sallis, J. F., Owen, N. & Fisher, E. B. Ecological models of health behavior. Health Behav. Health Educ. Theory Res. Pract. 4, 465–486 (2008).
  19. Harvard School of Public Health. Making Healthy Choices Easy Choices. Obesity Prevention Source (2015). at
  20. Ashe, M., Graff, S. & Spector, C. Changing places: Policies to make a healthy choice the easy choice. Public Health 125, 889–895 (2011).
  21. Kahn-Marshall, J. L. & Gallant, M. P. Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: A review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Educ. Behav. 1090198111434153 (2012).
  22. Boyas, J., Wind, L. H. & Kang, S.-Y. Exploring the relationship between employment-based social capital, job stress, burnout, and intent to leave among child protection workers: An age-based path analysis model. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 34, 50–62 (2012).
  23. Moynihan, D. P. & Pandey, S. K. The Ties that Bind: Social Networks, Person-Organization Value Fit, and Turnover Intention. J. Public Adm. Res. Theory 18, 205–227 (2008).
  24. Cohen, S. & Wills, T. A. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol. Bull. 98, 310 (1985).
  25. House, J. S., Landis, K. R. & Umberson, D. Social relationships and health. Science 241, 540–545 (1988).
  26. Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B. & Layton, J. B. Social Relationships and Mortality Risk: A Meta-analytic Review. PLoS Med 7, (2010).
  27. Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T. & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. The relationship between social support and physiological processes: a review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychol. Bull. 119, 488 (1996).
  28. Cohen, L. As American as Apple Pie: Policies that Protect Health. (2010). at
  29. Krumholz, H. M. et al. Prognostic importance of emotional support for elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure. Circulation 97, 958–964 (1998).
  30. Kawachi, I. & Berkman, L. F. Social ties and mental health. J. Urban Health Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 78, 458–467 (2001).
  31. Mello, M. M. & Rosenthal, M. B. Wellness programs and lifestyle discrimination-The legal limits. N. Engl. J. Med. 359, 192 (2008).
  32. Cavico, F. J., Mujtaba, B. G., Muffler, S. C. & Samuel, M. Wellness Programs in the Workplace: An Unfolding Legal Quandary for Employers. Int. J. Occup. Health Public Health Nurs. 1, 15–50 (2014).
  33. Mujtaba, B. G. & Cavico, F. J. Corporate Wellness Programs: Implementation Challenges in the Modern American Workplace. Int. J. Health Policy Manag. 1, 193–199 (2013).
  34. O’Donnell, M. P. Health promotion in the workplace. (2014).
  35. O’Donnell, M. P. in Health Promotion in the Workplace, 4th Edition (American Journal of Health Promotion, 2014).
  36. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. (2008). at
  37. Consensus Statement of the Health Enhancement Research Organization, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, American Cancer Society and American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network, American Diabetes Association & American Heart Association. Guidance for a reasonably designed, employer-sponsored wellness program using outcomes-based incentives. J. Occup. Environ. Med. Am. Coll. Occup. Environ. Med. 54, 889–896 (2012).
  38. Sizemore, S. C. Fatter Butt Equals a Skinnier Wallet: Why Workplace Wellness Programs Discriminate against the Obese and Violate Federal Employment Law, A. Wyo Rev 11, 639 (2011).
  39. Kwoh, L. When Your Boss Makes You Pay for Being Fat. Wall Street Journal (2013). at
  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Workplace Health – Business Case – Benefits of Health Program. (2013). at